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Planting guidelines
(Users’ Manual)

Dear Partner!

The Holland Alma Ltd. And the Első-Metész Nursery Production Cooperative ask you respectfully to read the “Planting guidelines” – that serve as Users’ Manual for our products – carefully before starting planting the purchased trees.

Acceptance of the graftlings:

Please personally or through a delegate make sure at the quality and quantity acceptance of the product about the amount and quality of the received plant material. At the quality acceptance please pay special attention to the soundness of the root system, just as whether it is free of clubroot. Please accept sole sound graftlings from our colleagues that are free of wounds, grow straight ahead, have healed callus tissue on the cutting surface and are free of pests or their symptoms. In case you have any remarks please do not hesitate to let us know already during the loading. The possibly damaged, defect, not standard products can be replaced only during the loading.

Transport of the graftlings:

Please, transport the plant material only by a box or covered transport vehicle! In case of a transport to longer distances, it’s worth to keep the root system wet. Please, ask for the help of our colleagues. In case of a transport with an open transport vehicle the customer has to bear all the losses arising from the transport damage of the propagation material. The transport by an open car has to be registered on the transport documentations.

Pre-crops, soil preparation:

The first step of the plantations establishment is the correct choice of the pre-crop. Good pre-crops are different cereals and plant cultures under intensive cultivation. In case of these pre-crops it is sure that the field has been kept free of weeds and in good state in the previous year. Grasslands and alfalfa are especially bad pre-crops. The same applied to uncultivated fallow fields. In case of these we have to calculate with many weed seeds and edaphic soil pests.

Please consider during the soil preparation that you are to establish a plantation for even more decades. The ground cultivation shall be executed deep enough, especially in case of soils with high plasticity. This does not mean definitely a deep plough; in many cases we can reach a better soil state with a deep soil loosening. Before the basic soil cultivation –in case soil analysis or our subjective opinion considers it reasonable – organic manure shall be applied. Use only mature manure as organic fertilizer and treat the whole field with it. (Treat not only the rows or the planting pits.) After the application of organic manure treat the field with mineral fertilizers and soil fumigants and cultivate them into the soil. Do not place either any organic or mineral fertilizer, or fumigants into the planting pit! These substances must not get into direct contact with roots. After the application of fumigants let the soil aerate for two weeks. The planting can be executed only afterwards. The planting pit shall be large for the root system of the plants without forcing them to bend or break. The more soil volume is loosened, the better the start of plant development will be. A dug pit is always better than another prepared with a drill. In case the planting is executed in the springtime it is recommended to prepare the planting pits already in the previous autumn and enable the winter weather to form its surface.

Temporary storage and preparation of graftlings to the planting:

In case the graftlings will not be planted directly after transport we need to apply a temporary storage. It is worth to cover the graftlings 20 cm above the root collar with loose earth. The pit must not be airy; therefore it has to be compressed. The pit shall be treated with any rodenticide, e. g. Redentin.

The root system of graftlings shall be cut directly before planting in order to achieve a better growth. Thicker roots without lateral offroots shall be cut back to two-third. But radicles shall be left untouched. We can apply clay paste that means that we dig a deeper pit before planting and prepare a thin clay mud. The root system of the graftlings will be dipped into this mud and afterwards they will be planted. Substances that enhance root development (e. g. Radifarm) or contact fungicides with no copper content can be mixed to the paste. Don’t add any soil disinfection substance or other substances to the paste for they may cause toxic symptoms on the root system.

Planting:

Graftlings shall be placed into the planting pit that their roots don’t bend back or cannot be damaged. In case of correct planting the wound of the grafting or budding is placed 2-5 cm above ground level. In case the scion is placed below ground level it may happen, that it produces own roots and separate from the rootstock. These trees will grow too vigour and spoil the uniformity of the plantation. Place the wound of the grafting or budding against the dominant wind-blow direction in order to hinder the graftlings break at the soil level.

Loosen earth shall be put onto the root system of the graftlings in the pit and it shall be compressed afterwards. In case the soil is dry (does not stick in your hands), you have to apply irrigation directly after planting. Around the root collar, into the upper part of the planting pit we can add some Agroblen fertilizer with lasting effect. Do not add any other kind of mineral fertilizer directly to the roots of the graftlings.

Prepare a planting registry that contains all circumstances of the planting. (Rootstock, variety, number of pieces, map, exact placement, origin, number and direction of rows, correct description of soil preparation works.) It is important to keep this register later, during the cultivation up-to-date as well.

Things to do after planting

In order to support the growth of the graftlings an irrigation applied a few times after planting is essential (in case of some rootstocks, like M9, M26, BA-29, it is even in the future important.)

Furthermore, it is of great importance to cut the graftlings back! Without this we can count on only a minimal growth. In case of trees with moderate vigour (M9, M26, Ba-29) we have to cut the graftlings into a crown at a height of 75-85 cm, while in case of vigorous rootstocks (MM106, MM111, mirabolan, wild pear) this height is between 90 and 100 cm. It is impossible to get strong side branches with a weak, not intensive cutting. In case of graftlings with crown cut the side branches back to 2-4 buds (to inner-upper position) and the main branch to 5-8 buds. The growth is minimal without cutting back!

Keep the field always clean and free of weeds below the planted trees. In the first two years use hoeing for this purpose, because trees repay the movement and aeration of the soil, beside the weed-control effect. From the third year it is possible to use some herbicides.

Do not forget about the control of rodents – mice and voles. Strew rodenticides around the root collar. It is especially in the winter important! A single vole is able to gnaw a root collar of a two-three years old tree within a few days. Warning! Rodenticides usually have an anti-thrombotic effect; therefore they are to be applied where no children or domestic animals can reach them. Its effect turns up only a few days later and it’s irreversible. Wear gloves during the application and wash your hands afterwards carefully.

Deers and rabbits can cause similar damages. It’s worth to control even the fields with fence in the wintertime, to see whether there’s any damage caused by wild animals. To protect the trunk of young trees with special cover nets.

Pease consider following these advices! Thank you for entrusting us!



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